By Ben Dupre
50 gigantic rules you actually need to understand is a concise, available and well known advisor to the imperative tenets of Western concept. each vital precept of philosophy, faith, politics, economics, the humanities and the sciences is profiled in a chain of brief illustrated essays, complemented via an informative array of timelines and field good points.
Platonism, The Soul, Communism, Aristotelianism, religion, Fascism, The Golden rule, Atheism, Racism, Altruism, Secularism, Feminism, Pluralism, Fundamentalism, Islamism, Liberty, Creationism, Capitalism, Toleration, struggle, Globalization, Scepticism, responsibility, Classicism, cause, Utopia, Romanticism, Punishment, Liberalism, Modernism, Materialism, Democracy, Surrealism, Relativism, Conservatism, Censorship, Utilitarianism, Imperialism, great Bang, Existentialism, Nationalism, Chaos, Evil, Social agreement, Evolution, destiny, Republicanism, Relativity, Quantum mechanics, Gaia.
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Extra resources for 50 Big Ideas You Really Need to Know
Certain kinds of monkeys and deer, for instance, give alarm calls or signs as a warning to other members of their group that a predator is nearby, even though by doing so they risk danger to themselves. In social insects such as bees and ants, certain castes do not (and cannot) breed, devoting themselves entirely to the well-being of the colony. It doesn’t matter that such behaviour is typically instinctive rather than deliberate; the important point is that it has the effect of promoting others’ interests at the expense of the agent.
Maintaining such simulated worlds will require relatively tiny computer resources – a single laptop of the future could be home to thousands or millions of simulated minds – so in all probability simulated minds will vastly outnumber biological ones. The quality of the simulation will be so high that the experiences of biological and simulated minds will be indistinguishable, so the latter will be totally unaware that they are simulated. But they will be wrong. We, of course, know that we are not computer-simulated minds living in a simulated world … Or do we?
Berlin’s two concepts of liberty The most influential recent analysis of liberty is due to the great 20th-century political philosopher Isaiah Berlin. At the heart of his study of liberty lies a crucial distinction between positive and negative freedom. We often think of freedom as being the absence of any external restriction or coercion: you are free so long as there is no obstacle preventing you from doing what you want to do. This is the kind of freedom that Berlin calls ‘negative freedom’.
50 Big Ideas You Really Need to Know by Ben Dupre